The CAIS has been instrumental in the development of methods used for the authentication of and foods and flavors and revealing adulteration of consumer products, using measurement of radiocarbon (14C) and the stable isotope ratio analysis of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur (δ13C, δD, δ15N, δ18O and δ34S).

The CAIS applies Radiocarbon techniques to reveal the addition or dilution of fossil-fuel derived materials (petroleum, coal, natural gas) in consumer products such as vanilla extract, citrus oils, cherry and almond extracts, and a whole host of other flavors used in the food and flavor industry. These carbon sources may not be used when the product’s label states “natural”. In contrast, “natural products”, those derived from recently grown plants such as corn, oranges or apples, exhibit a clearly detectable and quantifiable level of radiocarbon for their confirmation.

Natural product compounds or chemicals are those derived from modern plants without the use of extreme or robust chemical processing. Only processes such as distillation, extraction, fermentation and the like, are permissible in foods labelled “natural”. Therefore, chemical manipulation, synthesis and catalytical processes are not considered natural processes and thus exclude the material from being considered natural. Stable isotope ratio analysis allows for the detection of these “unnatural processes” and along with the radiocarbon content permit characterization of both source material and process of manufacture confirmation.

The CAIS are leaders in the development of radiocarbon and stable isotope techniques applied to the authenticity of foods and flavors and work closely with industry and government agencies such as the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), Bureau of alcohol, tobacco and firearms (BATF) and the Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).

Fees                                         14C and δ13C only                   14C, δ13C and δD

2-3 week standard TAT                      $260                                        $325

7-business day rush service                 $450                                        $540

4-business day rush service                 $650                                        $750

Analytical Services: Organic Compound Characterization

The CAIS uses state-of-the-art instrumentation and processing to enable individual compound characterization. Gas Chromatographic and High Performance Liquid Chromatography are used for separation of compounds from complex mixtures prior to identification and quantitation.

Samples amenable to Gas Chromatographic separation such as flavors, beverage extracts, archaeological compounds of interest and marine derived compounds are measured by direct injection of compounds in suitable solvent. Those not amenable may be derivatized for easy vaporization and elution through the analytical column. For long chain hydrocarbons, non-volatile and those compounds not amenable to derivatization are separated using HPLC methods with suitable detectors for specific class of compounds.

The CAIS has a couple of mass spectrometers coupled to the gas chromatographs for direct determination of the structure and quantity using available libraries fir comparison. When target compounds.

Complex samples are first analyzed using GC/IRMS technique to ascertain purity of individual compounds relative to other compounds in the mixture and their individual isotopic value such as the δ13C value. Individual compounds are collected using a Gerstel preparative fraction collector while monitoring the peak collection efficiency on the GC’s FID detector. Individually collected compounds can then be assessed for purity and lack of fractionation during this processing by both GC/MS and GC/IRMS of the individual compound. Once confirmed, collected compounds are converted to graphite for analysis on a AMS instrument.

Fees: GC/MS up to 10 compounds, call for TAT

Organic ID and/or quantitation: $200

Natural Products Submission Form corrections: Make specific submission form

Analytical Services: Compound Specific Isotope Testing

The CAIS uses state-of-the-art instrumentation and processing to enable individual compound classification with applications ranging from food, flavor and beverage authentication, archaeological specificity and marine processes in the near-shore and coastal environments. The refinement of isotopic analysis from bulk samples to chemical class analysis such as total alkanes or lipids, to ramped pyrolysis methods or those compounds released at increasing temperature ranges, has lead to even greater refinement in individual compound analysis.

For many years the technique of gas chromatography has been married to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for the compound specific measurement of their δ13C and δD values. In addition, though much less frequently, δ15N and δ18O values on individual compounds can be can assessed as well, such as for amino acids and other nitrogen and oxygen containing compounds.

The CAIS uses the Thermo 253 IRMS coupled to the latest Thermo GC and combustion interface along with a Thermo QSX mass spectrometer for structure identification and compound confirmation. Unknown materials can be sampled using direct GC injection in appropriate solvent, headspace sampling analysis and even solid phase extraction techniques. This capability allows a thorough characterization of the C, H, N or O isotopic composition of a range of organic molecules from a myriad of sources for process elucidation.

A further and extremely valued technique the CAIS offers is compound specific 14C via AMS measurement. Although a much larger sample volume is required for processing individual compounds relative to gas chromatographic techniques, a preparative GC or HPLC instrument can be applied to yield appropriate quantities of selected compounds for further processing.

Complex samples are first analyzed using GC/IRMS technique to ascertain purity of individual compounds relative to other compounds in the mixture and their individual isotopic value such as the δ13C value. Individual compounds are collected using a Gerstel preparative fraction collector while monitoring the peak collection efficiency on the GC’s FID detector. Individually collected compounds can then be assessed for purity and lack of fractionation during this processing by both GC/MS and GC/IRMS of the individual compound. Once confirmed, collected compounds are converted to graphite for analysis on a AMS instrument.

Fees: 

  • GC/IRMS up to 10 compounds, call for TAT $200
  • GC/AMS call for $ and TAT

Natural Products Submission Form corrections: Make specific submission form

Analytical Services: Compound Specific Isotope Testing

The CAIS uses state-of-the-art instrumentation and processing to enable individual compound classification with applications ranging from food, flavor and beverage authentication, archaeological specificity and marine processes in the near-shore and coastal environments. The refinement of isotopic analysis from bulk samples to chemical class analysis such as total alkanes or lipids, to ramped pyrolysis methods or those compounds released at increasing temperature ranges, has lead to even greater refinement in individual compound analysis.

For many years the technique of gas chromatography has been married to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for the compound specific measurement of their δ13C and δD values. In addition, though much less frequently, δ15N and δ18O values on individual compounds can be can assessed as well, such as for amino acids and other nitrogen and oxygen containing compounds.

The CAIS uses the Thermo 253 IRMS coupled to the latest Thermo GC and combustion interface along with a Thermo QSX mass spectrometer for structure identification and compound confirmation. Unknown materials can be sampled using direct GC injection in appropriate solvent, headspace sampling analysis and even solid phase extraction techniques. This capability allows a thorough characterization of the C, H, N or O isotopic composition of a range of organic molecules from a myriad of sources for process elucidation.

A further and extremely valued technique the CAIS offers is compound specific 14C via AMS measurement. Although a much larger sample volume is required for processing individual compounds relative to gas chromatographic techniques, a preparative GC or HPLC instrument can be applied to yield appropriate quantities of selected compounds for further processing.

Complex samples are first analyzed using GC/IRMS technique to ascertain purity of individual compounds relative to other compounds in the mixture and their individual isotopic value such as the δ13C value. Individual compounds are collected using a Gerstel preparative fraction collector while monitoring the peak collection efficiency on the GC’s FID detector. Individually collected compounds can then be assessed for purity and lack of fractionation during this processing by both GC/MS and GC/IRMS of the individual compound. Once confirmed, collected compounds are converted to graphite for analysis on a AMS instrument.

Fees δ13C or δD 14C

GC/IRMS up to 10 compounds, call for TAT $200

GC/AMS call for $ and TAT

Natural Products Submission Form corrections:

Make specific submission form

Analytical Services: Hydrogen and Oxygen isotopes in water

ANALYTICAL SERVICES: HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE TESTING

The CAIS has been instrumental in the development of hydrogen δD and oxygen δ18O stable isotope methods used for body water determinations, source water and geographic origin assessments and confirmation of natural process in manufacturing foods and flavors.

The CAIS determines the δD and δ18O of water samples using one of two methods certified through round robin testing. A Thermo IRMS coupled to a Thermo TCEA (Thermal conversion elemental analyzer) with measurement of the individual isotope pairs as hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). And a Picarro Cavity Ring-down spectrometer for the simultaneous analysis of δD and δ18O as vaporized water. Both methods make use of international standard reference materials and secondary in-house suite of standard materials.

Fees

  • 2-3 week standard TAT: $20
  • 7-business day rush service: $50

Natural Products Submission Form corrections: Need new form